Q: What is CNC?

A: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) refers to the automated control of machine tools and 3D printers through computer systems. A machine equipped with CNC technology can manufacture a piece of raw material (such as metal, wood, plastic, ceramic, or composite materials) into a finished product without the need for human intervention, based on pre-programmed instructions. The machine tool that employs numerical control is known as a CNC machine tool.

In modern CNC systems, the design of the workpiece heavily relies on computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The CAM software interprets the design model, calculates the movement instructions for the machining process, and converts them, along with other necessary auxiliary commands, into a format readable by the CNC system through a post-processor. The resulting file generated by the post-processor is then loaded into the CNC machine tool for the actual manufacturing process. Once the program instructions are input into the memory of the CNC system, they are compiled and computed by the computer. Through the displacement control system, the information is transmitted to the drives to operate the motors, thereby cutting and machining the desired parts.

Q: What is Instruction function?

A: The Instruction function refers to a capability of CNC systems that allows users to program and instruct the machine tool by manually guiding its movements. With the teaching function, an operator can physically move the machine tool through a series of desired positions and record these movements as a program. The machine tool then memorizes and reproduces these actions precisely.

During the teaching process, the machine tool's movements are typically controlled in a manual or jog mode, where the operator can use handwheels, joysticks, or other control interfaces to guide the machine's motion. As the operator moves the machine tool to various positions, the system records the corresponding coordinates and creates a program that represents the desired tool path.

The teaching function is beneficial in scenarios where the machining process involves complex or irregular shapes that are challenging to program using traditional methods. By physically demonstrating the desired tool path, operators can easily create programs without extensive knowledge of programming languages or complex CAD/CAM software.

Once the teaching process is complete, the generated program can be stored, edited, and reused for subsequent machining operations, providing a practical and efficient way to program CNC machines.

Q: The Difference Between Hard Rails and Linear Rails.

A:Hard rails and linear rails are two different types of guiding systems commonly used in machinery and equipment. Here are the differences between the two:

Design and Construction:
Hard Rails: Hard rails, also known as box ways or box slides, are rigid guiding systems typically made of cast iron or steel. They consist of precisely machined surfaces with a rectangular or box-shaped profile. The contact between the sliding surfaces provides stability and resistance to vibrations.

Linear Rails: Linear rails, also referred to as linear guides or linear bearings, are modern guiding systems that use rolling elements for smooth motion. They feature a rail and a carriage assembly. The rail has a linear profile with raceways, and the carriage contains rolling elements, such as balls or rollers, that circulate within the raceways to facilitate smooth and precise movement.

Motion and Performance:
Hard Rails: Hard rails offer excellent rigidity and are suitable for heavy-duty applications that require high load capacity and resistance to deflection. They can handle significant cutting forces and provide enhanced stability during machining operations. However, they may exhibit higher friction and require regular maintenance to ensure smooth operation.

Linear Rails: Linear rails provide low-friction motion, resulting in smooth and precise movement. They offer high accuracy, repeatability, and stiffness while maintaining relatively low friction and wear. Linear rails are commonly used in applications that require high-speed and high-precision positioning, such as CNC machines and automated systems.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

  • Hard Rails Advantages:
    • High load capacity and rigidity.
    • Suitable for heavy-duty applications.
    • Enhanced stability during machining.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Higher friction.
    • Regular maintenance required.
  • Linear Rails Advantages:
    • Low-friction motion for smooth operation.
    • High precision and repeatability.
    • Suitable for high-speed and high-precision applications.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Relatively lower load capacity compared to hard rails.
    • Vulnerable to contamination in the rolling elements.
    • Requires proper lubrication for optimal performance.

The choice between hard rails and linear rails depends on the specific application requirements, load capacity, precision, and desired motion characteristics. Each system has its advantages and considerations, and selecting the appropriate guiding system is crucial for achieving optimal performance and productivity.

Q: Comparison of rigidity and transmission efficiency?
Ball Screw Roller Screw Hard Rail
Rigidity 50-70% 70-90% 100%
Hysteresis 5-20% 10-30% 100%
Rate >100 m/min 100 m/min <20 m/min
Feed rate <0.1 um 0.1 um 1 um

Ball Screw Roller Screw Hard Rail
Rigidity 5-10um
2 um
Hysteresis 30-80 kgf/um 30-80 kgf/um 100 kgf/um
Rate >100 m/min 30 m/min <20 m/min
Feed rate <0.5 um 0.05-0.1 um 2-3 um

When performing heavy cutting and high-hardness material processing, the hard rail bed is definitely the first choice. The biggest advantage of the hard rail is that it will not be limited in processing due to different materials.